The Purpose of Studying Calligraphy and Knowing Khat Types

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Calligraphy Art Learning

The art of writing Indah Khat or what we call Arabic calligraphy is supposed to be taught in Islamic boarding schools and schools. Calligraphy lessons must be given systematically and adapted to the potential development of students. Such as for kindergarten (kindergarten) to elementary school students (SD) or Madrsah Ibtidaiyah (MI) by providing calligraphy coloring learning activities. And plus drawing calligraphy with the initial goal is to introduce and give the impression of fun learning calligraphy.

Continuing the MI / SD level lessons began to be introduced to how to write good Khat Naskhi without being too attached to the standard. Then the Junior High School (SLTP) or Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTS) lessons begin again with Khat Naskhi seriously following the correct writing formula and getting to know other types of khat.

Continuing the program In the Senior High School (SLTA) or Madrasah Aliyah (MA) you can begin to be given another Khat lesson. Begin to know Khat stulus, Diwani, Pharisees and Qufi. At this stage the most intensive learning stage deepens and cleanses the quality of students’ skills.

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The Main Purpose of the Calligraphy Learning Program

We must understand the importance of calligraphy learning. The learning program aims to develop the potential, attitudes and skills of students.

In general, we can describe Calligraphy Learning Objectives as follows:

– Develop skills and skills through the types, forms, characteristics of functions, tools, materials, processes and techniques in making products of art.
– Develop intellectual, imaginative, expressive, aesthetic, creative abilities, sensitivity to respect for the work of art.
– Aesthetically, calligraphy has an element of ornamental beauty and a wealth of various accessories that foster a sense of aesthetics.
– The beauty of calligraphy facilitates information and communication.

Know the Types of Calligraphy (Khat)

Calligraphy is divided into several categories. According to the standard provisions in pure Arabic writing (Khat) there are known to be several types. In the ushul at-tadris al-rArabiyah book, Abdul Fattah mentions that Khat consists of 8 categories. Namely Khat Qufi, Tsulus, ta’liq (al-farisi), diwani, diploma, (tauqi ‘), thughra, letters al-taj, riq’ah, naskhi. Eight types of calligraphy that we commonly hear are; Qufi, Naskhi, Tsulus, Rayhani, Diwani, Diwani Jaly, Farisi and Riq’ah.

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The following is a brief explanation of the Khat types:

– Khat Qufi. According to Arab historians this form of Khat is from the time of the Prophet Ismail as. Then it was refined again in the 1st century. By Quthbah Al-Muharrir in Damascus. In some Khat literature was born in the city of Kuffah (Baghdad). But this Khat has triumphed in Hirah, Raha and Nasiban before the birth of the city of Kuffah. This figure who is known to be the creator of Khat} is Quthbah Al-Muharrir. The characteristics of Khat are: the shape is upright, stiff (angular) like a box or beam. Khat Qufi has several forms or models. According to Al-faruqi, Khat Qufi is divided into three forms, namely: Qufi Musyajjar (Floriated Kuft), Qufi Mudaffar (Plaited Kuft) and Qufi Muraba ‘(Squared Kuft).

– Khat Naskhi. Etymologically the name Naskhi comes from the verb nasakha which means “has erased”. Interpreted this way because this paper has deleted existing and previously developed writing, Qufi. Besides that it can also be interpreted as “copying”. This is because the writing is usually for copying or writing the Qur’anic manuscripts, religious books and scientific texts. There are also those who interpret nasakha as “curved (cursife) and oblique which directly distinguishes it from the stiff and angular Qufi writing. This type of Khat was discovered by Ibn Muqlah (272 H) in Baghdad, Iraq and was perfected by Ibn Al-Bawwab and Ya’qut Al-musta’simi in the 10th century to become the official writing of the Qur’an. These characteristics of Khat are the curvature of the letters like a bow and a half circle.

– Khat Tsulus. The tsulus name is taken from the Arabic tsulusi which means one third. Discovered by Ibn Muqlah (272 H). Khat} tsulus is divided into two big groups namely tsulus ‘Adi and tsulus Jaly.
– Khat Riq’ah. The term ri’q comes from the word riqa ‘which is the plural form of the word riq’ah which means “pieces or sheets of fine leaves”. It is said that calligraphers have used this object as a medium of writing. Created by a Turkish calligrapher, Abu bakar Mumtaz Bek and perfected by Sheikh Hamdullah Al-amsani (833-926 H). Khat developed rapidly during the Ottoman dynasty in 2H century Turkey.
– Khat Diwani. It is a form of official Ottoman royal writing. This type of writing developed at the end of the 15th century. Which was an attempt by one of the Turkish calligraphers, Ibrahim Munif and perfected by Sheikh Hamdullah Al-masi.

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– Khat Diwani Jaly. It is a development of Khat Diwani. Khat diwani jaly is also called Khat humayuni or Khat muqaddas. This Khat has an excessive style compared to Khat diwani, so it emphasizes more on the decoration aspect than the spelling aspect.
– Khat Rayhani. Rayhani means fragrant. This Khat is a development of Khat Naskhi and Khat Tsulus. Khat is widely used in religious book research and Qur’anic manuscripts. It was first discovered by Ali ibn Al-ubaydah Al-rayhani and developed by Ibn Al-bawwab.
– Khat Pharisees. According to history, Khat Pharisees came from Khat Qufi and developed in Persia, Pakistan, India and Turkey. Widely used for research books, magazines, newspapers and so on. Khat was developed by Abdul Havy, Abdurrahman Al-Khawarizm, Abdurrahim Anisi and Abdul Karim Padsyah. According to some opinions, Khat was first discovered by Mir Ali Sultan Al-Tabrizia.

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