Mosque Calligraphy Function
How do we understand the meaning of the function of calligraphy writing at mosques to beautify mosques. Are there other benefits besides the beauty of the appearance of mosque decorations. How does the law write the verses of the Koran or certain verses that have the message to invite someone to pray in congregation, to be devoted in worship, to maintain ethics in the house of Allah (mosque) by writing it on the mosque wall, or using certain media such as glass and the like then pasted on the walls of the mosque?
Basically, the law is a matter that is permissible. Even writing certain verses and hadith with the intention of giving motivation to worship, syi’ar Islam and so that the mosque looks beautiful with good calligraphy, including issues that are permissible. Islam in addition to paying attention to the legal aspects, is also very concerned about the ethical and aesthetic aspects.
Maintenance of the Qur’an
The early history of the maintenance of the Qur’an to its collection and writing from the time of the Prophet to the time of al-Khulafa ‘ar-Rashidun, the Companions guarded the Qur’an with two methods at once, namely the method of memorizing (al-jam’u fi ash -Shudur), and the method of writing the Koran (al-jam’u fi ash-shuthur). Both in the midrib dates, rocks, leaves to the skin of animals that have been tanned. This was done by the friends and scribes of the revelation (kuttab an-Nabi / kuttab al-wahyi), as explained in the following history:
حدثنا حفص بن عمر حدثنا همام حدثنا قتادة قال سألت أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه من جمع القرآن على عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال أربعة كلهم من الأنصار أبي بن كعب ومعاذ بن جبل وزيد بن ثابت وأبو زيد
[رواه البخاري ومسلم]
Meaning: “Having told us Hafsh bin Umar, told us Hammam, told us Qatadah, (he) said; I have asked Anas bin Malik, who are the people who have collected the Qur’an at the time of the Prophet? Anas replied: there were four people entirely from the Ansar, namely; Ubai bin Ka’ab, Muaz bin Jabal, Zaid bin Tsabit and Abu Zaid. “[HR. al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Bookkeeping of the Qur’an
In another narration, it is stated that Umar bin Khattab once proposed and suggested to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq to collect and record (memushafkan) the Koran so as not to disappear along with the many huffazh (memorizers of the Qur’an) who died well during war and others. With very mature and heavy considerations finally Abu Bakr accepted Umar’s proposal to collect and rewrite the Qur’an by ordering several clerical friends of the revelation to the Prophet, making Zaid bin Thabit in charge. With very deep considerations, finally Zaid bin Tsabit accepted Abu Bakr’s proposal, then he collected verses from the Qur’an from various sources, among others, as explained in the following fragment of al-Bukhari’s history:
قال زيد بن ثابت وعمر عنده جالس لا يتكلم فقال أبو بكر إنك رجل شاب عاقل ولا نتهمك كنت تكتب الوحي لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم … فقمت فتتبعت القرآن أجمعه من الرقاع والأكتاف والعسب وصدور الرجال
Meaning: “… … Zaid bin Thabit said and Umar sat with him without speaking at all. Then Abu Bakr said (to Zaid ibn Thabit): truly you are a young, intelligent man and we do not doubt you at all. You have written a revelation for the Messenger of Allah … … then I stood (received the mandate), then I searched and collected the Qur’an from the skins of animals (which had been tanned), bones, wood midribs (dates) and from memorizing the friends. [HR. al-Bukhari]
Understanding the Law of Writing Calligraphy
The conclusion that can be drawn from the history above is about the ability to write verses of the Qur’an both on the wood midrib (boards and the like), the skin and bones of halal animals are eaten like cattle and goats and other media. Writing calligraphy in the form of verses of the Koran or sentences related to the names and attributes of Allah (al-Asma ’al-Husna) is allowed syar’i.
But also what must be considered is that the media used to write the verse of the Qur’an must be ensured of its purity (not unclean). Put in the right and respectable position (not in the bathroom and the like), and not excessive so that the congregation is disturbed in carrying out the prayer.
Associated with places that are forbidden to write verses of the Qur’an and the writings contained in the names of Allah and His Messenger as explained above are bathrooms, toilets and the like. This can be understood from the spirit of the Prophet’s hadith. as follows:
عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا دَخَلَ الْخَلَاءَ نَزَعَ خَاتَمَهُ
[رواه الترمذي والنسائي وأبوداود وابن ماجة]
Meaning: “It was narrated from Anas bin Malik, he said: is the Messenger of Allah when entering the restroom he takes off his ring (which reads Muhammad Rasulullah).” [HR. at-Tirmidzi, an-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah]
When explaining the matan’s hadith, the scholars stated that this hadith is a proposition about the prohibition of carrying, mentioning and writing down the names of Allah, the Messenger of Allah and the Qur’an. Whereas Ibn Hajar argues about kesunnahan not to carry (including writing) or mention all names and attributes of Allah, names of Prophets and Angels, but if it is violated then the law is makruh.
However, carvings and paintings with calligraphy al-asma ‘al-husna and verses of the Qur’an are principally permissible (observing) with regard to ethical, aesthetic and legal aspects as explained above.
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