Calligraphy Khat Tsuluts
Type of Calligraphy khat Tsuluts is the most popular form of calligraphy, both by artists and people who are new to calligraphy. The way of writing this type of khat is almost the same as that of naskhi, but the difference is made longer and can still be read by the general public.
The name khat Tsuluts comes from the meaning of the method of making the calligraphy written with kalam with the tip of the trigger cut to the size of one third (tsuluts) scratched by kalam. There are also those who call it Arabic khat, because this style is a main source of various types of Arabic calligraphy that are many in number after Kuf Kufi.
To be able to write with the Khat Tsuluts, the trigger of the kalam is cut with an angle of approximately half the width of the trigger. This size is very suitable for writing the names of Adi Tsuluts and Jali Tsuluts. Khat Tsuluts are widely used for wall decor and various media because of their flexibility. It is considered to be the most difficult compared to other styles, both in terms of the method or the process of its preparation which demands harmony and balance.
Khat Tsuluts Grows Into Several Styles
1. Khat Tumar
Khat, which was created by Qutbah al-Muharrir, which grew and developed during the Umayyad period, was usually written in large size with simple rules. Khat is very suitable for decorating walls or large media. The Turkish khattat named it the Jali Tsuluts or the Great Tsuluts. Tumar or the plural Tamur Tawamir means sahifah (sheet or manuscript). Khat Tumar means khat written on a sheet or manuscript.
2. Khat Muhaqqaq
The creator is Ibn Bawab (w.413 H). Ibn Bawab is a famous calligrapher after Ibn Muqlah. This khat is almost similar to the Tsuluts, because the differences between the two are very vague and can only be known by careful experts. In its development, it’s increasingly dim and rarely used so that its position is shifted by the Tsuluts.
3. Khat Raihani
The creator of this khat was Ibn Bawab too, but was closely related to Ali ibn al-Ubaydah al-Rayhan (d. 834 AD) so that his name was taken for this khat’s name. Another opinion explains Rayhani with the word Rayhan which means fragrant because of its beauty and popularity.
4. Khat Tawqi ‘
Tawqi ‘means a signature, because the caliphs and the prime minister always use Tawqi’ to sign their various texts. Created by Yusuf al-Syajari (w.210 / 825M). Then it developed in the hands of Ahmad ibn Muhammad, known as Ibn Khazin (w.1124 AD) as Ibn Bawab’s second generation student. What distinguishes the Tsuluts from Tawqi ’is Tawqi’, which is always written very small. The Tawqi ’form is Tugra’ or Turrah which originally served as a stamp and symbol of the Ottoman sultans of varying sizes.
5. Khat Riqa ’or Ruqa’
Riqa ‘plural Ruq’ah means small smooth leaf sheets used to write the khat. This style was created by Al-Ahwal al-Muharrir which he processed from Khafif Tsuluts. Some historians have named this style with khat Tawqi ‘, but what is more true is that Riqa is also processed from Tawqi. The size of Riqa ‘is smaller than Tawqi’ and is used specifically for copying small texts and storytelling.
6. Khat Tsulusain
Created by Yusuf al-Syajari’s brother Ibrahim al-Syajari (w.200an H) in the time of the Bani Abbas. Ibrahim made the Tsulusain method from khat which had existed since the first, namely khat Jalil. Tsulusain means two thirds because it was written with kalam, the tip of the trigger being cut to the size of two-thirds of the width of the stroke of the kalam, slightly smaller than the size of the Tumar which was written very large.
7. Khat Musalsal
Created by Al-Ahwal al-Muharrir from the Barmak family in the time of Banu Abbas. Some of these khat letters are interconnected, therefore some modern historians call them Mutarabit khat which means binding or binding to each other.
8. Khat Tsuluts ‘Adi
This creator of khat is Ibrahim al-Syajari at the beginning of the 3rd century H in the time of the Bani Abbas. In some Arabic dictionaries it is mentioned, “anna al-sulusiyya min al-khuttut huwa al-galiz al-surat” (one third of the khat is a difficult letter).
9. Khat Tsulus Jali
Jali means clear (clear). Clarity in this case lies in the anatomical width of the letters which is more dominant than the distance, compared to the distance that is more dominant than the width of the anatomy of the letters in Tsulus ‘Adi. Thus, in Tsulus Jali, the composition of letters piled up in the media space is written clearly. Khat is widely used for writing titles and permanent art media.
10. Khat Tsulus Mahbuk
Mahbuk means structured or neatly arranged, measured according to the beauty of division (husn al-tawzi ‘) and the rules of composition (ihkam al-tartib). The beauty of division is characterized by the absence of a group of letters piled in one place while another place is too empty so that it encourages the khatta to multiply and fill it with certainty and decoration to balance the balance. While the composition rules are the accuracy of positioning words, letters, and points in strategic places.
11. Khat Tsulus Muta’assir bil Rasm
Some khattat or calligraphers try to compile Arabic characters into visual forms that can speak so that they are more varied while at the same time balancing obedience to religious teachings with the pleasure of drawing, because in Islam the visualization of living things is clearly in contrast to the spirit of da’wah to always guard monotheism and stay away from kesyirikan . The potential for a very flexible and easy Arabic letter was formed to encourage the khattat to create symbolic images that revealed sacred sentences and tauhid, so that calligraphy was processed into a means of drawing free from the visualization of living things openly. This image-influenced Khat was finally accepted and popular among Muslim artists. There are many varieties and variations of this khat stream, which freely take figural or symbolic patterns in the form of images of humans, animals, plants and objects.
12. Khat Tsulus Handasi
This style is Tsulus who composes letters and words geometrically (handasi) and beautiful based on the taste of art, so that it becomes the basis of compactness, harmony, and unification of a work.
13. Khat Tsulus Mutanazhir
Mutanazhir means bouncing each other. Named also the Tsulus Mir’at (mirror), where the one on the right side bounces to the left side, so that as if between the two sides there is a mirror. This is also called the style of Ma’kus (bouncing), musanna (AC-DC or two-dimensional), and ‘Aynali (mutual gaze). This style is inseparable from the influence of Muslim culture that reciprocate each other’s kindness in daily life such as greeting and answering.
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