The Art of Writing Islamic Calligraphy
Writing in Islam which was once widely spoken through oral then developed into writing, by Muslims developed into writing SKI or often also called the art of writing khat. This art continued to expand from time to time so that it became so well-known and highly sought after by activists in the art of Islam (Yasin Hamid Safadi, 1971: 19). This art focuses on the results of writing using various styles and patterns by producing a series of letters, sentences and verses that are written systematically, beautifully and perfectly.
From this persistent endeavor, a number of different types of Islamic Calligraphy Khat can be born so that it reaches the Malay Realm as shown below:
Khat Kufi, which is the oldest type of khat. This writing has many angles and right angles and has a facet, containing short vertical lines and elongated horizontal lines (Syahruddin, 2004: 29). Khat kufi is often referred to as Jazm, this type of khat has adorned many of the main buildings in the Malay Realm because it is rather easy to design, although it is rather difficult to read by Muslims on the side rather difficult and difficult to write.
Khat Nasakh, which is a type of cursive-shaped handwriting, namely writing moves round (rounded) and its nature is easy and clear to be written and read (C. Israr, 1985: 83). According to Didin Sirojuddin AR. “The word Nasakh is taken from the root of Nuskhah or Naskhah” (Didin Sirojuddin AR, 1997: 103). This type of khat greatly dominates the use of calligraphic writings in Alam Melayu because it is used in various verses of the Koranic manuscripts and even used in the writing of various general textbooks and Islam and so on.
Khat Thuluth, which is a writing that is widely used for decoration in various manuscripts, especially in the editorials of books or sub-sections and the names of books or books. This type is also used as decorative writing on the walls of cover and page decoration. Besides that, this type of khat is very popular in the Islamic community in the Malay world because it is always used as decoration and writing in main buildings such as mosques and mosques.
Khat Farisi, which is the type of Ta’liq or Pharisees that has developed in many Persian (Iranian) countries, Pakistan, India and Turkey. This development of khat originated in Parsi during the Safavi Dynasty (1500-1800 AD). According to its history, khat Ta’liq originated from the kufi writings brought by the Arab rulers of the Persian conquest era. This type of khat is not used too much as an interior decoration in the Malay realm except in certain writings such as book headlines neatly stored in the library or school.
Khat Riq`ah, which is also called the Riq`ie or Riqa` style. Khat is a type of fast writing and almost the same as the method of writing stenography (trengkas science, Dictionary of the fourth edition, 1989: 1226). The use of this type of writing in the Malay world was not very widespread in the general public except among students and cottage students who used it as important notes on lecture notes or their lessons.
Khat Diwani, namely khat in the form of a circle, leaning in layers, the letters overlap, are flexible and free. Khat Diwani is a feature of the Uthmani writing that parallels its development with the Pharisees of Shikasteh. This type of khat can still be found in the Malay world as additional decorations, but not as much as using the Nasakh or Thuluth khat types.
Thus are some descriptions of the types of Islamic calligraphy that are known to be very common in the Malay realm, although there are still many other types of calligraphy that have been used and even used in the archipelago, but these types of calligraphy dominate the abundance of calligraphy art on Asian Asia. Southeast.