Calligraphy, literally is writing that emphasizes its appearance more on aesthetics. Because of calligraphy, the more beautiful it is, the higher the quality. Arabic calligraphy as the cornerstone of Islamic calligraphy, is the writing of Arabic letters beautifully following the rules that are generally understood. The rule is a rule that has been formed through the process of learning, experience, development and refinement for centuries.
Islamic calligraphy is more on displaying sentences originating from the Qur’an, Hadith or aphorisms as a means of dhikr, syiar and Islamic preaching. In its development, for a more beautiful appearance, Islamic calligraphy is often combined with ornamentation. Ornaments that are generally used are Arabic ornamentation because of the wealth of motifs and patterns. But it does not close as likely as in Indonesia, it has been made a lot of decorations and mushaf al-quran with local ornamentation featuring batik patterns and other ornaments in Indonesia.
The most frequently used Arabic ornaments are Arabesque motifs. We can describe Arabesque, which is an Islamic art form that takes various geometric shapes. Besides displaying aesthetics, Arabesque also shows the superiority of Muslim scholars for achievement in the science of measurement (algebra). Motives must be made with the right size according to the media application. The geomtris motif is arranged in such a way, repeated and combined with additional forms of other ornaments to create a beautiful decoration.
The combination of writing decorated with ornaments has become a necessity in the appearance of calligraphy. This combination is most often found in the interior / exterior decoration of the mosque even though it is also found in the Mushaf Al Quran and as such. So that a narrow understanding arises among ordinary people that calligraphy is a composition which is a combination of both. Speaking of calligraphy means talking about decorating Islamic art, especially in mosques that we often meet, adorn the ceiling, domes, inner walls or outer walls of mosques.
Calligraphy Writing at the Mosque
The mosque is a place where Islamic worship activities are centered. Starting from the rituals of prayer in congregation, education, muamalah, even in the time of Rasululloh it also became a place of deliberation to set a war strategy.
The height of the mosque is so high that Rasululloh SAW stressed that Muslim men should do their prayers as much as possible in congregation at the mosque. I’tikaf for men can only be done at the mosque, even someone who returns from traveling far away to the mosque before returning to his house. Therefore the mosque must be a priority place compared to other buildings. The mosque is expected to be a comfortable place for anyone who comes and stays in it.
Humans naturally love to see beauty, evoke a sense of comfort in a beautiful place. Especially if the beauty is then a means of connecting him with God. It is hoped that the existence of calligraphy can add to the comfort of someone in the mosque so that it makes him feel at home enjoying time in it.
The harmony of beauty created in the making of Islamic calligraphy art in mosques is a combination of inscriptions and basic functions of the mosque itself as a place of worship. Beauty that is not only beautiful, but also leads him to return to remembering His commands and prohibitions, heaven and hell, rewards that are punishments and so on which lead to the disturbance of the faith to get better. This is where calligraphy is expected to be a means of triggering the reconnection of memory to Allah (Dhikrullah).
A calligrapher (calligraphy writer) is required to understand and master the rules of Arabic calligraphy. This can only be obtained through learning, perseverance and experience for years. As a result, not many artists can do it, even if there are only a few that have been tested for quality. In addition, the knowledge and skills of combining calligraphy with ornaments and coloring are other qualities that must be possessed. The complexity of the pattern is loaded with geometric calculations (algebra), the position of the media that is difficult to reach because of its high size and position (ceiling and dome) also contributes to the difficulty in the manufacturing process. When the simplicity of the process is resolved by successfully creating beautiful decorations following the design, then it becomes a work of art that deserves to be shown as a monument. The symbol of the elevation of the noble Islamic culture.
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