Arabic Calligraphy Art
Calligraphy is a beautiful, stylish and elegant handwriting or writing with a pen or brush and ink. This involves the formation of the correct character, the sequence of various parts of art, and the harmony of proportions in form.
Some General Arabic Scripts
Manuscripts called Ruq’ah (small sheets), evolved from Naskh and Thuluth. Although Riq’a has close proximity to Thuluth, Riq’a develops in a different direction. Riq’a becomes simplified. Geometric shapes of letters are similar to Thuluth but smaller with more curves. Riq’a is round and dense with short horizontal stems, and alif letters have never been written with spiny heads.
Riq’a is one of the favorite texts of Ottoman calligraphy writers. Even then, Riq’a was revised by other calligraphers and later became the most popular and widely used text. Today, Riq’a is the preferred text for handwriting throughout the Arab world.
Deewani’s writing is Ottoman development. This text was developed by calligraphy expert Ibrahim Munif at the end of the 15th century from the Ta’liq of Turkey / Persia.
Deewani also developed into an ornamental variety called Deewani Jali, also known as Humayuni (Imperial). The spaces between the letters are circled with decorative devices, which do not always have orthographic values. Deewani Jali is very popular for decorative purposes.
Kufi is the dominant manuscript in the early days. It was made after the establishment of two Muslim cities Basrah and Kufah in the second decade of the Islamic era (8th century AD). This script has a specific proportional measurement, along with the level and squares spoken.
With its magnificent geometrical construction, and therefore not subject to strict rules, Kufi can be adapted to any space and material. Calligraphy that uses it is completely free in the conception and implementation of its decorative forms.
Naskh is one of the earliest scripts to evolve. Naskh was reformed into a good text that is appropriate for the Qur’an – and more Koran was written in Naskh compared to all other texts. Because scripts are relatively easy to read and write, Naskh appealed specifically to the general population.
Naskh is usually written with a short horizontal stem – and with almost the same vertical depth above and below the medial line. The curves are full and deep, perpendicular and vertical, and words are generally well placed.
The Ta’liq (hanging) manuscript is believed to have been developed by the Persians from the early Arabic texts and the lesser known ones called Firamuz. Ta’liq is also called Farsi, and has been used since the beginning of the 9th century.
The word Nasta’liq is a compound word derived from Naskh and Ta’liq. The Ta’liq and Nasta’liq manuscripts are widely used to copy Persian anthologies, epics, miniatures, and other literary works – but not for the Qur’an.
The Thuluth text was first formulated in the 7th century during the Umayyad Caliphate, but did not develop fully until the end of the 9th century. Its name means ‘one third’ – maybe because of the proportion of straight lines to the curve, or maybe because scripts are one-third the size of other popular contemporary scripts. Although rarely used to write the Qur’an, Thuluth has enjoyed great popularity as an ornamental text for calligraphy inscriptions, titles and titles. It is still the most important of all ornamental scripts.
The Thuluth text is marked with curved letters written with spiked heads. The letters are interconnected and sometimes intersect, thus giving rise to cursive flow with quite a lot of proportions and often complex.